The Architecture of the .NET Framework Development Platform
The Microsoft .NET Framework introduces many new concepts, technologies, and terms. My goal in this chapter is to give you an overview of how the .NET Framework is architected, introduce you to some of the new technologies the framework includes, and define many of the terms you’ll be seeing when you start using it. I’ll also take you through the process of building your source code into an application or a set of redistributable components (types) and then explain how these components execute.

Compiling Source Code into Managed Modules
OK, so you’ve decided to use the .NET Framework as your development platform. Great! Your first step is to determine what type of application or component you intend to build. Let’s just assume that you’ve completed this minor detail, everything is designed, the specifications are written, and you’re ready to start development. Now you must decide what programming language to use. This task is usually difficult because different languages offer different capabilities. For example, in unmanaged C/C++, you have pretty low-level control of the system. You can manage memory exactly the way you want to, create threads easily if you need to, and so on. Visual Basic 6, on the other hand, allows you to build UI applications very rapidly and makes it easy for you to control COM objects and databases. The common language runtime (CLR) is just what its name says it is: a runtime that is usable by different and varied programming languages. The features of the CLR are available to any and all programming languages that target it—period. If the runtime uses exceptions to report errors, then all languages get errors reported via exceptions. If the runtime allows you to create a thread, then any language can create a thread. In fact, at runtime, the CLR has no idea which programming language the developer used for the source code. This means that you should choose whatever programming language allows you to express your intentions most easily. You can develop your code in any programming language you desire as long as the compiler you use to compile your code targets the CLR.
So, if what I say is true, what is the advantage of using one programming language over another? Well, I think of compilers as syntax checkers and “correct code” analyzers. They examine your source code, ensure that whatever you’ve written makes some sense, and then output code that describes your intention. Differentprogramming languages allow you to develop using different syntax. Don’t underestimate the value of this choice. For mathematical or financial applications, expressing your intentions using APL syntax can save many days of development time when compared to expressing the same intention
using Perl syntax, for example.

Microsoft is creating several language compilers that target the runtime: C++ with managed extensions, C# (pronounced “C sharp”), Visual Basic, JScript, J# (a Java language compiler), and an intermediate language (IL) assembler. In addition to Microsoft, several other companies are creating compilers that produce code that targets the CLR. I’m aware of compilers for Alice, APL, COBOL, Component Pascal, Eiffel, Fortran, Haskell, Mercury, ML, Mondrian, Oberon, Perl, Python, RPG, Scheme, and Smalltalk.

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